Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder that is characterized by the presence of obsessive thoughts or intrusive images, compulsive behaviors or the combination of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessive thoughts/images/memories are intrusive and inappropriate and cause an individual significant anxiety and distress. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors (e.g., hand washing, putting objects in order, checking) or mental acts (e.g., praying or counting) that a person feels compelled to perform in an attempt to minimize feelings of anxiety and discomfort.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a psychological disorder that involves a misperception of one or more body areas. Individuals with BDD perceive a defect or flaw in their appearance that is either very small or nonexistent. Areas of concern often involve flaws of the face or head (e.g., hair thinning, acne, scars, redness, wrinkles, facial asymmetry, size/shape of facial features such as nose, mouth, lips, etc.). Other areas of concern may include but are not limited to genitals, breasts, buttocks, abdomen, hips, and thighs. Individuals suffering from BDD are preoccupied with the perceived defect(s) to a point where it causes clinically significant distress in several areas of functioning. They may spend excessive amounts of time checking their appearance in mirrors, putting on makeup or otherwise masking their appearance, and seeking reassurance. Individuals with BDD will often avoid social situations and romantic relationships. As a result, high levels of anxiety, depression, embarrassment, shame, and self-disgust are frequently present.
Hoarding Disorder, Trichotillomania (Hair Pulling Disorder), and Excoriation (Skin Picking Disorder) are other conditions that are included in the realm of Obsessive-Compulsive & Related Disorders.